ALWAYS LEARNING

CBSE Hindi Grammar

Top

Grammar is imperative to understand as it controls the flow of sentences. The CBSE board has incorporated Hindi grammar (हिंदी व्याकरण) in the curricula of elementary level and higher level with a purpose to develop basic grammar skills of students. Language is a medium through which an individual expresses his or her thoughts, ideas and feelings and also understand the thoughts of others. However, it is extremely important for an individual to maintain a correct flow while communicating or writing Hindi sentences. Hindi grammar plays a significant role in conveying writer’s message appropriately. Knowledge of grammar helps students in understanding the usage and importance of a particular word in a sentence. The study of Hindi grammar also enhances students’ Hindi word pronunciation. In Hindi CBSE grammar, eight parts of speech are included such as Sangyaa (Noun), Sarvnam (Pronoun), Vesheshan (Adjective), Kriya (Verb), Kriya Visheshan (Adverb), Sambandhbhodak (Preposition), Yojak (Conjunction) and Ghotak (Interjection).CBSE Hindi grammar textbooks are designed to upgrade students’ knowledge and improve their vocabulary skills. Students, who are pursuing education under the CBSE board, can understand Hindi grammar thoroughly with the help of important study materials prescribed by the board. 


Hindi Grammar
Hindi Grammar

Hindi Noun (Sangya) 

In Hindi grammar, noun is recognized as Sangya (संज्ञा) that helps in structuring a sentence appropriately. It is an important part of Devanagri script, which makes a sentence comprehensible for students. Noun in Hindi grammar have gender, masculine or feminine forms. 

Definition of Noun in Hindi:


Hindi Nouns or Sangya (संज्ञा) are naming words, which we usually use in Hindi sentences. Sangya can be a name of a place, thing, person or animal and abstract ideas, which we can touch, feel and see. It is broadly divided into 5 parts.  

Types of Noun in Hindi:


1. Vyakti vachak sangya (व्यक्ति वाचक संज्ञा) (Proper Noun)
2. Jati vachak sangya (जातिवाचक संज्ञा) (Common Noun)
3. Bhav vachak sangya (भाव वाचक संज्ञा) (Abstract Noun)
4. Samudaay vachak sangya (समुदाय वाचक संज्ञा) (Collective Noun)
5. Dravya vachak sangya (द्रव्य वाचक संज्ञा) (Material Noun)

Sentences using Sangya are mentioned below: 

1. मोना एक अच्छी लड़की है। (Mona ek aachi ladki hai.)
2. फुटबॉल टीम में ११ खिलाडी होते है। (Football team mein 11 khiladi hote hai.)
3. ताजमहल आगरा शहर में है। (Tajmahal Agra shaher mein hai.)

Hindi Pronoun (Sarvanam) 

Sarvanam (सर्वनाम) or pronoun is a part of speech that is mainly used in place of noun to avoid repetition of name of a person or a thing in the sentence. Usually, sarvanam is used to indicate a noun. In Hindi grammar, there are six types of pronouns that are used in the Devanagri script. 

Types of Pronoun in Hindi:


1. Purush vachak sarvanam (पुरुष वाचक सर्वनाम) (Personal Pronoun): It is further divided into three types:
i.     Uttam Purush (उत्तम पुरुष) (First Person)
ii.    Madhyam Purush (माध्यम पुरुष) (Second Person)
iii.    Anya Purush (अन्य पुरुष) (Third Person)
2. Nischay vachak sarvanam (निश्चय वाचक सर्वनाम) (Demonstrative Pronoun)
3. Anischay vachak sarvanam (अनिश्चय वाचक सर्वनाम) (Indefinite Pronoun)
4. Sambandh vachak sarvanam (सम्बन्ध वाचक सर्वनाम) (Relative Pronoun)
5. Prashna vachak sarvanam (प्रश्न वाचक सर्वनाम) (Interrogative Pronoun)
6. Nijvachak sarvanam (निजवाचक सर्वनाम) (Reflexive Pronoun)

Sentences using Sarvanam are mentioned below: 

1. मै तुम्हारे लिए खाना बना कर लायी हूँ । (Mein tumhare liye kahana banakar layi hun.)
2. सबलोग परीक्षा में पास हो गए। (Sab log pariksha mai pass ho gaye.)
3. तुम कहां जा रहे हो ? (Tum kahan ja rehe ho.)

Hindi Adjective (Visheshan)

Visheshan (विशेषण) or adjective is an essential element of a sentence. It expresses the quality of a person or thing. In Hindi grammar, visheshan or adjective is used to explain noun including person, place or thing in a better way. Hindi adjective or visheshan is used before the noun or the pronoun in the sentence. There are four types of adjective or visheshan in Hindi grammar. 

Types of Adjective in Hindi:


1. Gunavachak visheshan (गुणवाचक विशेषण) (Descriptive Adjective/ Adjective of Quality)
2. Parimanvachak visheshan (परिमाण वाचक विशेषण) (Adjective of Quantity)
3. Sankhyavachak visheshan (संख्या वाचक विशेषण) (Numeric Adjective)
4. Sarvanmic visheshan (सार्वनामिक विशेषण) (Demonstrative Adjective)


Sentences using Visheshan are mentioned below: 

1. सीमा एक सुन्दर लड़की है।  (Seema ek sundar ladki hai.)
2. नेल्सन मंडेला दक्षिण अफ्रीका के प्रसिद्ध स्वतंत्रता सेनानी एवं राष्ट्रपति थे।  (Nelson Mandela dakshin Africa ke prasid swatantrata senani evam rashtrapati the.)
3. रमेश एक चतुर लड़का है।  (Ramesh ek chatur ladka hai.)

Hindi Preposition (Kaarak or Sambhandbodhak) 

Hindi Preposition or Kaarak (कारक) plays a crucial role in making a sentence simple and understandable for readers. Kaarak (कारक) or sambhandbodhak (सम्बन्ध बोधक) are the words, which are specifically used in the sentence to explain the relationship between nouns, adjective and verbs. Along with this, it also relates noun (sangya) and pronoun (sarvanam) with the other words of the sentence. 

Types of Preposition in Hindi:


1. Karta (करता)                                 Ne (ने)
2. Karm (कर्म)                                    Ko (को)
3. Karan (करण)                                 Se, Ke Dwara (से, के द्वारा)
4. Sampradaan (सम्प्रदान)                  Ko, Ke Liye (को, के लिए)
5. Aapadaan (अपादान)                      Se (Alag Karna) (से, अलग करना)
6. Samband (सम्बंद)                          Ka, Ki, Ke (का, की, के)
7. Adhikaran (अधिकरण)                    Mein, Per (में, पर)
8. Sambodhan (सम्बोधन)                  Hai, Are (है, अरे)

Sentences using Kaarak are mentioned below: 

1. राकेश ने शाम की पढाई में बहुत सहायता की है। (Rakesh ne Shyaam ki paddhai mein bahut sahayata ki hai.)
2. सुभाष अपने मित्र के साथ बाज़ार गया था। (Subhash apne mitra ke saath bazaar gaya tha.)
3. अमित ने प्रिया के लिए नयी पुस्तक खरीदी है। (Amit ne Priya ke liye nayi pustak kharidi hai.) 

Hindi Verb (Kriya)

Hindi Verb or Kriya (क्रिया) is highly imperative part of speech. It is mainly used in the sentence to explain an action or a state of being. Verb or Kriya explains what a noun is doing or had done. It describes action in present tense, past tense or future tense. 

Types of Verb in Hindi:


1. Sakarmak Kriya (सकर्मक क्रिया) (Transitive Verb):It is divided into two parts: 

2. Akarmak Kriya (अकर्मक क्रिया) (Intransitive Verb)


Sentences using Kriya are mentioned below: 

1. राजीव अच्छा क्रिकेट खेलता है। (Rajeev aacha cricket khelta hai.)
2. नैना रोज़ स्कूल जाती है। (Naina roz school jati hai.)
3. मनोज ने अच्छा गाना गाया था। (Manoj ne accha gana gaaya tha.) 

Hindi Adverb (Kriya Veshashan) 

Hindi Adverb or Kriya Veshashan (क्रिया विशेषण) is a vital part of speech in Hindi grammar. It helps in explaining verbs or adjectives that are being used with a noun in a sentence. In other words, adverb or kriya veshashan are used to modify the adjectives and verbs of a sentence. 

Types of Adverb in Hindi:


1. Kaal Vachak (काल वाचक) (Time) 
2. Sthan Vachak (स्थान वाचक) (Place) 
3. Pariman Vachak (परिमाण वाचक) (Quantity) 
4. Reeti Vachak (रीति वाचक) (Manner)

Sentences using Kriya Veshashan are listed below:

1. शोभा अक्सर स्कूल के बाद पढाई करने अपनी सहेली के घर जाती है। (Shobha aksar school ke baad paddahi karne apne saheli ke ghar jati hai.)
2. भारत में क्रिकेट का बड़ा प्रचलन है। (Bharat mein cricket ka bada prachalan hai.)
3. पर्यावरण संरक्षण में वनो का बहुत बड़ा योगदान है। (Paryavaran sanrakshan main vano ka bahut bada yogdhan hai.)

Hindi Conjunction (Yojak / Sammuchay-bodhak)

Hindi Conjunction is popularly known as Yojak (योजक) or Sammuchay-bodhak (सम्मुचय-बोधक). It joins two words, sentences, phrases and clauses. It is a part of speech and used to structure sentences appropriately. 

Types of Conjunction in Hindi:


1. Vikalp-soochak (विकल्प-सूचक) (Alternative)
2. Vibhajak (विभाजक) (Dis-joint)
3. Parinaam-soochak (परिणाम-सूचक) (Result)
4. Karan-soochak (कारण-सूचक) (Reason) 
5. Uddeshya-soochak (उद्देश्य-सूचक) (Motive)

Sentences using Sammuchay bodhak are mentioned below: 

1. रवि ने नई साइकिल खरीदी मगर चलाना नहीं सिखा। (Ravi ne naii cycle kharidi magar chalaana nahi sikha.)
2. आज विज्ञानं ने मानव जीवन को सरल बना दिया है परन्तु अत्यधिक प्रयोग भी नुकसान दायक होता है। (Aaj vigyan ne manav jivan ko saral bana diya hai parantu athaydhik prayog bhi nuksan dayak hota hai.)
3. स्कूल में दी गयी शिक्षा एवं परीक्षा का एक विद्यार्थी के जीवन में बहुत महत्व है। (School mein di gayi shiksha evam pariksha ka ek vidyarthi ke jeevan mein bahut mahatav hai.)

Hindi Interjection (Ghotak / Vismayaadi-bodhak)

In Hindi grammar, Interjection is known as Ghotak (घोतक) or Vismayaadi-bodhak (विस्मयादि-बोधक). It is used in the sentence to express extreme emotion and feelings. These are known as exclamatory words and mainly used at the beginning of the sentence and usually followed by an exclamation mark or comma.  

Types of Interjection in Hindi:


1. Theek ! (ठीक), Achcha ! (अछा), Achchha! (अच्छा), Bahut ! (बहुत)
2. Sach ! (सच), Hain ! (हैं), Arre ! (अरे), Baap Re ! (बाप रे), Kya ! (क्या)
3. Wah ! (वहा), Ahaa ! (अहा), Wah-wah ! (वहा-वहा),  Aahaa ! (आहा)
4. Dhikkaar ! (धिक्कार), Chhih ! (छिह), Dhat ! (धत)
5. Oh ! (ओह), Uff ! (ऊफ़), Haay ! (हैइ), Afsos ! (अफ़सोस),  Aah ! (आह)

Sentences using Ghotak or Vismayaadi-bodhak are listed below:

1. अफ़सोस ! तुम खेल प्रतियोगिता में भाग नहीं लेय पाये। (Afsos ! tum khel pratiyogita mein bhaag nahi ley paye.)
2. बहुत अच्छे ! सुनीत और विनय दोनों परीक्षा में अच्छे आँखों से पास हो गए। (Bhautt achchhe ! sunit aur vinay dono pariksha mein acche ankon se pass ho gaye.)
3. अरे ! तुम कल कहां चले गए थे? (Arre ! Tum kal kaha chale gaye the.)