Alankar

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Alankar (अलंकार) means ornaments and it is primarily used to enhance the beauty of a poem or (कव्यांश) Kavayansh. For instance, women use different types of ornaments to adorn their beauty and in same way, a poet uses various types of alankars to enhance his or her poem. Alankar is generally categorized into two groups that are as follows:

1.  Shabdalankar (शब्दालंकार): The words that create a magical effect in the sentence or a paragraph are known as shabdalankar. 

Shabdalankar (शब्दालंकार) ke bhed (Types of Shandalankar) 

     i. Anupras (अनुप्रास) (Alliteration): The repeated appearance of a consonant in a sentence is known as anupras. In other words, the consonant that comes in sentence more than once is called as anupras. For example, “Charu Chandra ke Chanchal Kirane (चारु चन्द्र की चंचल किरणें), Khel Rahi hai Jalthal Me” (खेल रही है जलथल में). Here, ‘C’ is repeated three times. 

     ii. Yamak (यमक) (Homonym): When similar kind of word repeats more than once, but appears with different meaning is known as yamak. For example, “Sajana hai mujhe sajana ke liye” (सजना है मुझे सजना के लिए). Here, ‘Sajana’ means make-up as well as a beloved person. 

    iii. Shlesh (श्लेष) (Pun): A word, which used once, but it shows more than one meaning. For example, “Rahiman panni rakhiye, bin paani san sun, pani gaye na ubte moti manush chun”(रहिमन पानी राखिये, बिन पानी सब सुन, पानी गए न ऊबते मोती मानुष चुन). Here, ‘Pani’ means water and also in second line ‘pani’ means tears. 

2.  Arthalankar (अर्थालंकार): Artha means meaning. Arthalankar are the words that enrich the sentence or a paragraph. The most widely used arthalankar are as follows: 

     i. Upma (उपमा) (Simile): When a person or thing is appreciated or compared in a poem with a well-known thing or a person then it is known as upma. For example, Geeta sings like Lata Mangeshkar. Here, Geeta singing is being compared to famous singer Lata Mangeshkar.

    ii. Rupak (रूपक) (Metaphor): An implicit comparison between two things or objects that are completely different from each other, but have some similar characteristics is known as rupak. For example, “Payo ji mainai ram rattan dhan payo”(पायो जी मैने राम रतन धन पायो). Here, Lord ‘Ram’ is compared with ‘Ratan’ (Precious Stone and ‘Dhan’ (Money). 

   iii. Atishyokti (अतिश्योक्ति) (Hyperbole): The words that are used to exaggerate something or someone are known as atishyokti alankar. For example, “Hanuman ki puunch me lagan n paayi aag, lanka saari jal gayi gaye nishachar bhag”(हनुमान की पूँछ में लगन न पायी आग, लंका सारी जल गयी गए निशाचर भाग”). Here, the poet has described that the Lord Hanuman’s tail sets fire to the entire Lanka region.