Varn Vichar

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A letter (वर्ण) is the smallest unit in Hindi language. In other words, the smallest sound is known as varn. The group of varn is considered as varnmala. There are total 49 varn in the Hindi varnmala, out of which 11 are vowels, 33 are consonants, 2 are aayogvaha and 3 are sanyuktaakshr.

On the basis of pronunciation, Hindi varnmala is categorized into two parts.

1.  Vowel (स्वर ): The words that are pronounced without obstructing or diverting the flow of air are known as (Swar)
2.  Consonant (व्यंजन): The words that are pronounced with the help of vowels are known as consonants (Vyanjan).

 Vowels (स्वर) 
  अ (A)     आ (Aa)
  इ  (E)   ई  (Ee)
  उ  (U)   ऊ (Oo)
  ए  (Aye)    ऐ (Ae)   
 ओ (O)   औ (Au)
  अं (An)   अः (Aḥ)
  ऋ (Ri)  

 Consonants (व्यंजन) 
  क (K)      ख (Kh)     ग (Ga)  
  घ (Gha) 
 ङ (D) 
  च (Cha)  
 छ (Chha)    ज (J)   झ (Jha)   ञ (Ña) 
  ट  (Ṭa)  ठ  (Th)   ड  (Da)   ढ (Ḍha)
  ण (Ṇa)
  त (Ta)  थ  (Tha)   द  (Da)     ध (Dha)   न (Na)
  प (P)
 फ  (Pha)   ब  (Ba)   भ (Bha)   म (M)
  य (Ya)  र (Ra)   ल (La) 
  व (Va)   श (Sha)
  ष (Shh)  स (S)   ह (Ha)   क्ष (Ksh)   त्र (Tra)
  ज्ञ (Jña)        

Types of Consonants (व्यंजन के प्रकार )


1. Sparsh (Mute Consonants) - 'क' से 'म'    
2. Anthsth - Semi-Vowels - य, र, ल, व 
3. Usham - Sibilants - श, ष, स, ह