Viram Chinh

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Viram-chinh (विराम-चिन्ह) (Punctuation mark) is generally used to make the sentence organized and understandable for the readers.  A punctuation mark or viram chinh is represented through various symbols. For example,  alpa viram (अल्प विराम) (comma), ardh viram (अर्ध विराम) (semi-colon), purn viram (पूर्ण विराम) (fullstop), vismayaadhibodhaka chinh (विस्मयाधिबोधका चिन्ह) (exclamation mark), prashnvachak chinh (प्रश्नवाचक चिन्ह)(question mark), koshtak (कोष्ठक) (parentheses), nirdeshak chinh (निर्देशक चिन्ह) (hypen/endash), udharn chinh (उद्धरण चिन्ह) (quotations marks), aadesh chinh (आदेश चिन्ह) (colon), yojak chinh (योजक चिन्ह) (emdash) and laghav chinh (लाघव चिन्ह)(period/dot). 

Let us understand the usage of viram-chinh or punctuation mark in detail:

1. Alpa Viram (अल्प विराम) (,) :- Alpa viram (comma) is used to explain the separation of words or ideas within the sentence. 

For example:
i. Suresh, devesh aur ramesh. 
ii. Jo smaark aap dekh rehe hai, vo Tajmahal hai.

2. Ardh Viram (अर्ध विराम) (;) :- Ardh viram (semicolon) is used to connect independent clauses. 

For example:
i. Jab bhi Gauri aati hai; tum bhi aa jate ho. 
ii. Baarish aane vali hai; khet nasht na ho jaye.

3. Purn Viram (पूर्ण विराम) (I) :- Puran viram (fullstop) is used at the end of the sentence. It is used when a sentence or a statement is completed. 

For example: 
i. Ashish aur Shekhar bazaar gaye the I
ii. Priya pustak padh rehe hai I

4. Vismayaadhibodhaka Chinh (विस्मयाधिबोधका चिन्ह) (!) :-Vismayaadhibodhaka chinh or exclamation mark is used when an individual want to express a sudden outcry or love, anger or hate expressions in the sentence. 

For example: 
i. Aare! tum kab aaye.
ii. Haaye! mujhe kutte ne kaat liya.

5. Prashnvachak Chinh (प्रश्नवाचक चिन्ह) (?) :- Prashnvachak chinh or question mark is used at the end of a sentence. This mark is used when a question is being asked in a sentence. 

For example:
i. Aap kaha gaye the?
ii. Tum kidhar rehete ho? 

6. Koshtak (कोष्ठक) () :- Koshtak or parentheses is used to explain the meaning or expression. It is extensively used in drama and play to express the dialogues or expressions of protagonists. 

For example: 
1. Nirantar (lagataar) vyyaam karene se deh (sharer) theek reheta hai. 
2. Vo Bangalore (Karnataka) mai reheta hai. 

7. Nirdeshak Chinh (निर्देशक चिन्ह) (-) :- Nirdeshak chinh or hypen/endash is used between the parts of a compound word or name or between the syllables of a word. 

For example: 
i. Tum so rehe ho - accha, soho. 
ii. Samast pashu pakshiya - gaaye, tota, untt, ghodha aur chidiya sabhi vyakul the. 

8. Udharn Chinh (उद्धरण चिन्ह) (“ “) : - Udharn chinh or quotations marks are used in a sentence after a alpa viram (comma). These marks are used at the beginning and end of a passage or a saying of a famous personality. 

For example: 
i. Gandhi ji ne kaha tha, Bhool Karne me paap to hai hee, parantu use chipane me usse bhi bada paap hai
ii. Ramcharit manas tulsi ka amar kavya granth hai.

 9. Aadesh Chinh (आदेश चिन्ह) (:-) :- Aadeh chinh or colon is written when sentences or words are written in a chronological order. 

For example:
i. Sangya  ke pramuk bhed hai:- Vyakti vachak, jaati vachak, bhav vachalk, samudaay vachak aur dravya vachak sangya

10. Laghav Chinh (लाघव चिन्ह) (.) :- - Laghav chinh or period/ dot is used to represent a big word in a short form.
For example: 
i. Dr. – Doctor 
ii. Prof. – Professor